Recent comments

  • Reply to: Dr. Oskar Fischer’s Mysterious Little Alzheimer’s Germ   3 weeks 1 day ago

    Recently, several mentions on the internet have been made that early 20th century Czech physician Oskar Fischer — who, along with his German contemporary Dr. Alois Alzheimer, was integral in first describing the condition — noted a possible connection between the newly identified dementia and tuberculosis. 

    Actually, this is historically inaccurate:

    Dr. Oskar Fischer1 linked Alzheimer's to the germ called Streptothrix, an older designation for the disease Actinomycosis, although an association between Fischer's Streptothrix and tuberculosis has recently been implied.2

    1. Fischer O, “Miliare Nekrosen Mit Drusigen Wucherungen der Neurofibrillen, eine Regelmassige Veranderung der Hirnrinde bei Seniler Demenz,” Monatsschr f Psychiat Neurol 22 (1907): 372; O. Fischer, “Miliary Necrosis with Nodular Proliferation of the Neurofibrils: A Common Change of the Cerebral Cortex in Senile Dementia,” Monatsschrift fur Psychiatrie und Neurologie, vol. XXII, Th. Ziehen (ed). (Berlin: Karger, 1907), 361–72; In The Early Story of Alzheimer’s Disease, edited by Katherine Bick, Luigi Amaducci, and Giancarlo Pepeu (Padova: Liviana Press, 1987), 5–18.

    2. Broxmeyer L. Alzheimer's Disease –How Its Bacterial Cause Was Found and Then Discarded. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (August 3, 2016). 190 pages. ISBN-10: 1491287357 ISBN-13: 978-1491287354.

  • Reply to: A Clinicopathological Investigation of White Matter Hyperintensities and Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology.   1 month 2 weeks ago

    Important paper. Very useful

  • Reply to: Dr. Oskar Fischer’s Mysterious Little Alzheimer’s Germ   3 months 2 weeks ago

    Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer MD1* and Dr. George Perry PhD2

    1 Chief Scientist of the New York Institute of Medical Research, USA
    2 Professor and Chief Scientist of the Brain Health Consortium. Semmes Foundation Distinguished University Chair in Neurobiology, the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA)

    As in the case of other CNS infectious agents claimed to cause Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the theory that Herpes Simplex Virus or any other herpes virus causes AD is still controversial. In their 2013 review, Mawanda and Wallace’s Can Infections Cause Alzheimer’s Disease [1] gave seven annotated references as to why HSV-1 “remains questionable” as a cause for Alzheimer’s. Some say that Herpes simplex virus type 1 in conjunction with APOE-epsilon 4 allele is a strong risk factor for AD, though either of these features alone do not increase the risk for AD. It is claimed that people who have symptoms of late onset AD and have one or more APOE-ε4 gene copies are more likely to have AD. However, APOE-ε4 is not diagnostic of AD and should not be used to screen people or their family members. Furthermore, many of those who have e4 alleles will never develop AD. And even in symptomatic people, only about 60% of those with late onset AD will have APOE-ε4 alleles [2,3]. Not only is the APOE gene not a clinical diagnosis, but just as importantly, “negative” results do not confer later protection. Beyond APOE, there are at least 20 other genetic factors which have been shown to have a small but significant role in determining Alzheimer risk [4]. And true understanding of genetic test results also requires attention to potential inaccurate results. For example, APOE-ε4 alleles themselves are known to show a distinct increase in tuberculosis [5]. Before widespread institution of anti-herpetics is unleashed on the general population, this is an area which requires further research. 

    Citation: Lawrence Broxmeyer and George Perry. “Alzheimer’s Disease: Questions Raised by a Herpes Virus Origin”. Current Opinions in Neurological Science 3:2 (2019): 652-660. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2592845.

    PDF available at:

  • Reply to: Can Tau Formation be Independent of Amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s Disease?   5 months 1 week ago
  • Reply to: Can Tau Formation be Independent of Amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s Disease?   5 months 1 week ago

    Vascular pathology as a strong predictor of cognitive decline that can act independently of amyloid pathology.



  • Reply to: Can Tau Formation be Independent of Amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s Disease?   5 months 2 weeks ago

     I am sorry that Dr. McGeer has not read my Letter carefully. I have not given information just on mouse studies, but also on human beings with AD.  To tell the truth, I was not expecting such a simple response. A detailed answer sophisticater than ' mice are not men ' would have been appreciated.