Recent comments

  • Reply to: Letter to the Editor: Comment on “Oral Monosodium Glutamate Administration Causes Early Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease-like Pathophysiology in APP/PS1 Mice"   1 month 5 days ago

    Dear Sir;

    Our article which was published by Plos ONE in 2010 presented that homocysteic acid (HCA) was a pathogen of 3xTg-AD model mice (1). And also we published that blood HCA was the pathogen of human AD (2). This HCA is the strong agonist of glutamate, which suggests MSG is the same glutamate.


    1. Hasegawa T, Mikoda N, Kitazawa M, LaFerla FM (2010) Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease with Anti-Homocysteic Acid Antibody in 3xTg-AD Male Mice. PLoS ONE 5(1): e8593. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008593

    2. Tohru Hasegawaa,∗, Masayoshi Ichibab, Shin-ei Matsumotoc, Koji Kasanukid, Taku Hatanoc,

    Hiroshige Fujishirod, Eizo Isekid, Nobutaka Hattoric, Tatsuo Yamadae and Takeshi Tabirac

    Urinary Homocysteic Acid Levels Correlate with Mini-Mental State Examination Scores


    in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 31 (2012) 59–64

  • Reply to: Letter to the Editor: Comment on “Oral Monosodium Glutamate Administration Causes Early Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease-like Pathophysiology in APP/PS1 Mice"   1 month 4 weeks ago

    We have carefully read the comments of Dr. Shinora on our article. We thank the editor for publishing our response alongside.

    Dr. Yoshida cites various studies that found no significant effect on plasma glutamate levels after MSG ingestion. It should be stated in this context that there is, however, much controversy in the literature over this topic. Other studies did report an increase in plasma glutamate levels after ingestion of MSG in humans [1-3] and rodents [4]. It is therefore possible that MSG supplementation does increase plasma glutamate levels, at least under certain circumstances. However, in our study we did not address this question, but focused on long-term effects of sustained MSG ingestion several weeks after MSG was administered. Indeed, in our paper we stated that glutamate may have entered the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as a possible explanation for our findings, but this is subject to future research. Since breakdown of the BBB has been described in the aging brain [5], in early Alzheimer’s disease [6], and even in people with the ApoE4 allele [7], we still regard this as the most likely hypothesis. In any case, whether future findings will or will not support this hypothesis, does not invalidate any of the major conclusion of the present paper. Analyzing BBB permeability to glutamate was not the main aim of this paper.

    Dr. Yoshida also deems it as ‘surprising’ that only APP/PS1 with 1% MSG and not in other experimental conditions—that is, 0.5% MSG—show impairments after treatment. We cannot follow the logic of the argumentation why it would be surprising that only the higher concentration should in fact induce impairments in APP/PS1 animals, while the lower MSG concentration would not.

    Furthermore, Dr. Yoshida raises concerns about the sample sizes we used in this study, given that pathophysiological development can vary between individuals in the APP/PS1 mouse model. The statistical tests that were applied demonstrated that the observed effects were significant, meaning that they were above chance level. Let us point out that is in fact the very essence of statistical parametric testing such as that resting upon Student’s t- or Snedecor’s F-distributions: by merely assuming normality and by taking into account within-sample variability, these tests allow for valid statistical inferences however little the sample size may be. A fortiori, the consistency and prominence of the mean difference exhibited between the groups (e.g., there was 4 times more Aβ present in the MSG-supplemented group, Fig. 2), turned out for our sample sizes to be sufficient. Besides, for some experiments larger sample sizes were indeed used (over 10 animals in each group), and we observed consistent effects in the MSG-1%-group, which correlated between different sets of experiments carried out by different researchers. Therefore, from a scientific standpoint, having applied well established statistical testing in a careful and responsible way, we are very much confident that our conclusions are reliable and consistent under the significance levels reported.

    Genetic variability and several environmental factors can influence the pathophysiology of AD, making it therefore difficult to relate our findings directly to epidemiological tendencies. We agree with Dr. Yoshida that more studies will be required to address whether MSG could have an effect in a certain subpopulation in humans (like carriers of the ApoE4 mutation, for example) and—as suggested in our discussion—this will be an interesting topic for further research.

    Tanja Fuchsberger, Jose Viña and Ana Lloret

    [1] Marina M, Graham TE (2002) Glutamate ingestion and its effects at rest and during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 93, 1251–1259.
    [2] Graham TE, Sgro V, Friars D, Gibala MJ (2000) Glutamate ingestion: the plasma and muscle free amino acid pools of resting humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278, E83–E89.
    [3] Stegink LD, Filer LJ Jr, Baker GL, Bell EF (1986) Plasma glutamate concentrations in 1-year-old infants and adults ingesting monosodium L-glutamate in consommi. Pediatr Res 20, 53-58.
    [4] McLaughlan JM, Neel FJ, Botting HG, Knipfel JE (1970) Blood and brain levels of glutamic acid in young rats given monosodium glutamate. Nutr Rep Int 1, 131-138.
    [5] Montagne A, Barnes SR, Sweeney MD, Halliday MR, Sagare AP, Zhao Z, Toga AW, Jacobs RE, Liu CY, Amezcua L, Harrington MG, Chui HC, Law M, Zlokovic BV (2015) Blood-brain barrier breakdown in the aging human hippocampus. Neuron 85, 296-302.
    [6] van de Haar HJ, Burgmans S, Jansen JF, van Osch MJ, van Buchem MA, Muller M, Hofman PA, Verhey FR, Backes WH (2016) Blood–brain barrier leakage in patients with early Alzheimer disease. Radiology 281, 527–535.
    [7] Montagne A, Nation DA, Sagare AP, Barisano G, Sweeney MD, Chakhoyan A, Pachicano M, Joe E, Nelson AR, D'Orazio LM, Buennagel DP, Harrington MG, Benzinger TLS, Fagan AM, Ringman JM, Schneider LS, Morris JC, Reiman EM, Caselli RJ, Chui HC, Tcw J, Chen Y, Pa J, Conti PS, Law M, Toga AW, Zlokovic BV (2020) APOE4 leads to blood-brain barrier dysfunction predicting cognitive decline. Nature 581, 71-76.

  • Reply to: Tau Biology, Tauopathy, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Diagnostic Challenges.   3 months 4 days ago

    Very important question in the field

  • Reply to: Comment on Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist for screening for Alzheimer’s disease   11 months 4 days ago

    We have carefully read the Letter to the Editor by Toni T. Saari, who made some proposals for our recently published article. We have checked the calculation method of internal consistency reliability and construct validity respectively, and provide the following feedback.

    As the authors say, alpha increases with the number of items, and the great Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the whole scale may be related to the big number of items. We have also calculated the alpha of each subscale and got nice results in most of the dimensionalities. Only one coefficient is just fair (greater than 0.6 and less than 0.7), and the reasons for this are clearly explained in the discussion. There are indeed some studies showing that there are many better alternative methods to replace the Cronbach’s alphas to calculate the reliability of the scale; in particular, omega is more suitable for the scale with multidimensional and tau non-equivalence. However, it is also mentioned in many studies that, due to the lack of tau equivalence, compared with omega, Cronbach’s alpha tends to underestimate rather than overestimated the reliability of the scale [1-3]. Nowadays, the Cronbach’s coefficient is still the most widely used method of reliability calculation.

    In addition, we have always acknowledged that the construct validity of the study results is not ideal, which may be related to the selection of the subjects and cultural differences. We also hope to expand the sample size to calculate confirmatory factor analysis in the further study, for optimizing the scale items. Although the content validity and criterion validity of the scale are good, the conclusion that the Mild Behavioral Impairment-Checklist (MBI-C) has high reliability and validity is still not accurate and easy to cause misunderstanding. Because the construct validity is not ideal, it is indeed unprecise to draw this conclusion directly.

    We appreciate Professor Toni T. Saari’s attention to our research and for making useful suggestions. This study aims to explore whether MBI, as a new scale for testing behavioral impairment, can replace the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire to be an effective tool for screening patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the small sample is the limitation of this study, MBI-C still demonstrates its superiority of screening. Considering that the internal consistency of each dimensionality of the scale and the structural validity are not ideal enough, we would like to accept the professor's suggestion sincerely, and modify the research conclusion as "This study showed that the Chinese version of the MBI-C has good reliability and validity, and could be used as an alternative scale to the NPI-Q for AD dementia screening in the Chinese population, but further large sample studies to inspect its construct validity is necessary". We hope to make up for the shortcomings of this study in further studies, and still believe that the MBI-C has a good implementation prospect in the screening of patients with AD in China.

    Yue Cui, Fang Li, and Liyong Wu


    [1] Deng L, Chan W (2017) Testing the difference between reliability coefficients alpha and omega. Educ Psychol Meas 77, 185-203.

    [2] Peterson RA, Kim Y (2013) On the relationship between coefficient alpha and composite reliability. J Appl Psychol 98, 194-198.

    [3] Tavakol M, Dennick R (2011) Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. Int J Med Educ 2, 53-55.

  • Reply to: Dr. Oskar Fischer’s Mysterious Little Alzheimer’s Germ   1 year 1 month ago

    Recently, several mentions on the internet have been made that early 20th century Czech physician Oskar Fischer — who, along with his German contemporary Dr. Alois Alzheimer, was integral in first describing the condition — noted a possible connection between the newly identified dementia and tuberculosis. 

    Actually, this is historically inaccurate:

    Dr. Oskar Fischer1 linked Alzheimer's to the germ called Streptothrix, an older designation for the disease Actinomycosis, although an association between Fischer's Streptothrix and tuberculosis has recently been implied.2

    1. Fischer O, “Miliare Nekrosen Mit Drusigen Wucherungen der Neurofibrillen, eine Regelmassige Veranderung der Hirnrinde bei Seniler Demenz,” Monatsschr f Psychiat Neurol 22 (1907): 372; O. Fischer, “Miliary Necrosis with Nodular Proliferation of the Neurofibrils: A Common Change of the Cerebral Cortex in Senile Dementia,” Monatsschrift fur Psychiatrie und Neurologie, vol. XXII, Th. Ziehen (ed). (Berlin: Karger, 1907), 361–72; In The Early Story of Alzheimer’s Disease, edited by Katherine Bick, Luigi Amaducci, and Giancarlo Pepeu (Padova: Liviana Press, 1987), 5–18.

    2. Broxmeyer L. Alzheimer's Disease –How Its Bacterial Cause Was Found and Then Discarded. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (August 3, 2016). 190 pages. ISBN-10: 1491287357 ISBN-13: 978-1491287354.

  • Reply to: A Clinicopathological Investigation of White Matter Hyperintensities and Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology.   1 year 2 months ago

    Important paper. Very useful