Editors' Blog

Development of Prevention and Intervention Recommendations for Alzheimer’s Disease

Dementia is a generic term which refers to a condition characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive function, especially the encoding of new information into memory, with frequent impairment of executive function, which interferes with activities of daily living.

Does Alzheimer’s even come close to being an Autoimmune Disease?

Weaver DF (2023) Alzheimer's disease as an innate autoimmune disease (AD2): A new molecular paradigm. Alzheimers Dement 19, 1086-1098.

What’s Leqembi got to do with Alzheimer’s dementia?

On January 6, 2023, the FDA granted an accelerated approval for lecanemab (branded Leqembi by Eisai and Biogen) in the treatment of early Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) patients.

Last comment on 19 June 2023 by Markku Kurkinen, PhD

APOE4 genotype and risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease

Apolipoprotein E gene allele 4 (APOE4) is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals carrying one copy of the APOE4 allele are known to be at 3-4-fold increased risk of developing AD compared with those carrying the more common APOE3 allele.

Last comment on 11 September 2023 by Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

Apolipoprotein E gene allele 4 (APOE4) is not only “genetic”. APOE-ε4 alleles are known to show a distinct increase in tuberculosis [Taghi Naserpour Farivar., et al. “Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in Tuberculosis Patients”. Journal of Applied Sciences 8.4 (2008): 719-722], Thank you.


Protecting Progress: Communicating and Using Dementia Risk Evidence

A transformation in our understanding of dementia is happening through advances in biomarkers, genetics, and other data used as dementia risk evidence (DRE) promising a future for precision dementia care.

Last comment on 30 November 2022 by Allyson Rosen, PhD, ABPP-CN

The Prion Hypothesis at Forty: Enlightening or Deceptive?

Spoiler: The prion hypothesis was developed in the context of misleading premises, skewed interpretations of experimental data and observations, and omission of previous findings and knowledge.

Last comment on 26 February 2024 by Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

CWD Tuberculosis Found in Spongiform Disease Formerly Attributed to Prions: Its Implication towards Mad Cow Disease, Scrapie and Alzheimer’s.

Citation: Lysenko AP, Broxmeyer L MD, Vlasenko VV, et al. CWD Tuberculosis Found in Spongiform Disease Formerly Attributed to Prions: Its Implication towards Mad Cow, Disease, Scrapie and Alzheimer’s J Mol Path Epidemol. 2017, 3:2


The TSE’S or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called BSE or “mad cow disease”), Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and “scrapie” in sheep or goats (caprine spongiform encephalopathy). They remain a mystery, their cause still hotly debated. Current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing “prions”, an acronym for hypothesized, gene-less, misfolded proteins, somehow claimed to cause the disease. Yet laboratory preparations of prions contain other things, which could include unidentified bacteria or viruses. And the only real evidence that prion originator Stanley Prusiner had in his original paper that the disease agent behind “Scrapie” in sheep and goats was devoid of DNA or RNA– was based upon the fact that he couldn’t find any. Furthermore, the rigors of prion purification alone, might, in and of themselves, have killed any causative microorganism and Heino Dringer, who did pioneer work on their nature, candidly predicts “it will turn out that the prion concept is wrong.” Roels and Walravens as well as Hartly traced Mad Cow to Mycobacterium bovis. Moreover, epidemiologic maps of the origins and peak incidence of Mad Cow in the UK, suggestively match those of England’s areas of highest bovine tuberculosis, the Southwest. The neurotoxic potential of bovine tuberculosis has for some time been well known. By 1911 Alois Alzheimer called attention to “a characteristic condition of the cortical issue which Fischer referred to as ‘spongy cortical wasting” in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). But behind AD, Fischer suspected a microbe called Streptothrix which was constantly being mistaken and confused for tuberculosis. Our present investigation of the TSEs clearly shows cell-wall-deficient (CWD) tubercular mycobacteria present, verified by molecular analysis, ELISA, PCR and microscopy to cause spongiform encephalopathy.

Keywords: Prions; Scrapie; The Spongiform Encephalopathies; Alzheimer’s disease;The eiology of Alzheimer’s Disease; Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex


Familiar Music May Help Caregivers and Loved Ones Living with Dementia to Connect with One Another

Music has a profound impact upon the lives of individuals living with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias.

Last comment on 25 May 2022 by JAD Admin,

A Science-Based Falsifiability Test for the Amyloid Hypothesis (AHyp)

The identification of Aβ peptides as the major components of amyloid plaque and the discovery in familial cases of Alzheimer’s diseases (AD) of multiple mutations in the genes implicated in their production led to the formalization of the Amyloid Hypothesis (AHyp) [1].

Last comment on 18 June 2023 by Markku Kurkinen, PhD

Fifty Years of Dementia: A Transdisciplinary and Intergenerative Lifelong Learning Adventure in the Field

Fifty years ago, I started my journey into the Alzheimer’s field, both personally and professionally.

Why We Must Lance the Alzheimer’s Boil

Sometimes social pressures come to a head, and a moment of crisis offers opportunity. With the disastrous FDA approval of aducanumab (or Aduhelm, as the drug is known in its commercial existence) in June, the figurative “boil” of the Alzheimer’s disease movement has done just that.

On the Nomenclature of the Alzheimer’s Disease Amyloid and Its Precursor

Amyloids are insoluble extracellular depositions of protein fibrils with a typical X-ray diffraction pattern. Amyloid fibrils are composed of polypeptide chains arranged in a twisted β-pleated sheet conformation.

The FDA Approves Aducanumab for Alzheimer’s Disease, Raising Important Scientific Questions

One of the most jaw-dropping reversals of guidance procedures in the history of the FDA took place last June 7, when the agency announced that the drug aducanumab, a monoclonal antibody manufactured by Biogen and Eisai, biotech companies for the treatment of AD, had received marketing approval.

Last comment on 19 July 2021 by Markku Kurkinen, PhD

What is the Purpose of Medicine When Dealing with Incurable Alzheimer’s Disease?

It is fair to ask this consequential question in the title above since it is seldom, if ever, discussed at dementia or neurology conferences.

Last comment on 25 April 2021 by Patrizia Mecocci, MD, PhD

"Something in the Air": Air Pollution and Dementia Risk

Risk factors for dementia are by now well established, with particular lifestyle factors/choices shown to have a significant impact on the development of dementia. However, much less is known in how much our environment potentially influences the risk for dementia.

Off BACE: Fascinating Failures, One with Cognitive Recovery?

Shocking cognitive worsening and brain shrinkage (not to mention other toxicities) were seen in subjects receiving BACE inhibitors during recent trials, meant to help early dementia.

Case Study: Understanding the Alzheimer’s Disease (including MCI) Patient Journey with Limited Patient Voice

Background: NetNoggin® conducts netnographic research (also called “ethnography online”) through social media listening.

Virtuoso compares her Alzheimer’s diagnosis to cancer

Eugenia Zukerman, flute virtuoso, author and television music reporter, has clinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD). She has openly discussed her condition with the media, and wrote about it in her latest book, “Like Falling Through a Cloud: A Lyrical Memoir,” published late last year.

Robots and Avatars that Show Emotions and the Role of Telepresence during the COVID-19 Pandemic

In the COVID-19 pandemic, in the absence of a cure or vaccine, the social distancing of older adults with cognitive impairment is vital for their survival.

NetNoggin’s Exploratory Analysis: Alzheimer’s Drug Failures

An exploratory study, conducted by NetNoggin®, revealed that among those impacted by Alzheimer's, hope of finding a cure is deflating due to recent clinical trial failures. This exploration was a combination of secondary analysis and primary netnographic research.

The Next Generation of Evidence for Dementia Risk Reduction

The past 10-20 years have seen an exponential growth in the scientific literature on dementia, the identification of dementia risk factors, and the potential for risk reduction.

“Checkmate the Onset of Dementia”: Prescribing Chess to Elderly People as a Primary Prevention of Dementia

It is estimated that around 45 million people in the world suffer from dementia, most of them over 60 years old. With increases in life expectancy, this incidence is projected to double every 20 years [1].

Last comment on 31 January 2019 by Soraya Valles, PhD

Recent Advances in the Field of 3D Modelling for Neurodegeneration

In the last few years, we have witnessed a tremendous advancement in cell culturing methods. The scene has been dominated by the optimization of 3D in vitro models either in the form of dissociated neuronal cultures or of the so-called organoids.

Last comment on 5 January 2019 by Doo Yeon Kim, Ph.D.

Prion Protein and Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia with large impact on population over the age of 65 years [1]. The most distinctive symptomatic phase during the disease is the decline of the cognition with the loss of synapses [2-5].

Last comment on 26 December 2018 by Claudio Russo, PhD

What Does Music Therapy Look Like for Persons with AD?

This blog is a follow-up to the one I published in August 2017, titled “Music Experiences for Persons with AD”. In this piece, I am focusing on one of the experiences: Music Therapy. As an inexpensive, evidence-based, and non-pharmacological treatment, music therapy should highly be considered in the total care package for persons living with AD.

Last comment on 16 November 2018 by Michael Gordon, MD MSc

Alzheimer’s Disease, the Sweet Trail to Neuroprotection

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we are gaining great ground in the field of early diagnosis, but disease-modifying drugs are still missing. While many studies have been focused on the pathogenic role of amyloid-β (Aβ) dysmetabolism, recent preclinical and clinical findings revealed a more complex picture. In AD, we need to embrace a complex view of the disease state as a condition resulting from the converging failure of health-controlling systems and networks; A condition shaped by the combination of our “omic” blueprint and the influence of the environment.

Last comment on 11 November 2018 by Paula Moreira, PhD

What is Aβ?

The search to find therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been dominated for over 25 years by research into the roles in the initiation and progression of dementia of the amyloid beta protein (Aβ) [1, 2], derived from the β-pathway of amyloid beta protein (AβPP) cleavage.

Last comment on 1 May 2018 by Sally Hunter,

Alzheimer’s Disease Research: A Modern Version of the Parable of the Blind Men and an Elephant

An ancient Indian subcontinent parable tells a story in which a group of blind men each touch a different part of an elephant. They cannot agree on the nature of the elephant because none of them observed the elephant as a whole.

Dr. Oskar Fischer’s Mysterious Little Alzheimer’s Germ

Alois Alzheimer might have mentioned plaques and tangles in a single short paper on pre-senile dementia in 1907, but it was the co-discover of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Oskar Fischer, who in that same year far more extensively reported neuritic plaque in 12 cases of senile dementia, a condition which he and many others refused to differentiate from Alzheimer’s “pre-senile” dementia.

Last comment on 1 October 2023 by Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD


Music Experiences for Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease

Music is a wonderful, non-pharmacological intervention to be considered for persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In order to provide appropriate and beneficial music interventions for persons with AD, it is important to understand the range of music experiences that may offer effective complementary management of symptoms associated with AD.

Crowd Sourcing Literature Reviews

Recently, the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (JAD) solicited their readership to vote on the most influential research articles in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in the last 5 years.

Last comment on 14 April 2017 by Francis Hane, PhD

Alzheimer’s Disease and Spirochetosis: A Causal Relationship

The World Health Organization [1] has declared dementia as public health priority. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. The challenges to governments to respond to the growing number of people with dementia are substantial. Tremendous efforts have been made in research during the last four decades highlighting important aspects of the pathogenesis of AD, but if the cause of AD is not defined, and treatments to prevent the disease are not provided, the world will face an unprecedented health-care problem by the middle of the century.

Last comment on 23 May 2017 by Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

What is wrong with Alzheimer’s disease clinical research?

There is increasing concern not only in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research, but all of modern investigations, that false findings may be the majority or even the vast majority of published research claims [1].

Last comment on 15 April 2017 by Markku Kurkinen, PhD

Applying Quantitative Neuroimaging in Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and remains incurable. Its prevalence is rising, current afflicting 5 million Americans with projections to affect millions more as the population ages [1].

When do we diagnose severe Alzheimer's disease?

Among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the percentage in the severe stage ranges from 28% [1] to 33% [2] to a maximum of 50% [3]. In institutionalized patients, prevalence is higher, with an estimated 75% of patients with severe AD [4].

Last comment on 2 December 2016 by Maheen Adamson, PhD

I eat, therefore I am a nutrition expert

There is no doubt that nutrition is involved in brain health and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This is an important area of research in the dementia field that has suffered from the absence of trained experts in nutrition and nutritional epidemiology.

Last comment on 30 September 2016 by Thomas B. Shea, PhD

The case for a viral role in Alzheimer's disease

Most of us harbour in our body several types of herpes virus—perhaps as many as five—and we provide them with a safe and secluded haven for life, as there are no methods for eliminating or expelling them.

Last comment on 19 August 2016 by Brian Balin, PhD

Molecular Neuroresilience Biomarkers and the Prediction of Brain Health Across Lifespan

The ability to maintain normal psychological and physical functioning and avoid serious mental illness when exposed to stress and trauma, a phenomenon known as resilience, is a topic that has been investigated over the past several years with increasing attention [1,2].

Last comment on 5 August 2016 by Heather Snyder, Ph.D.

Is sporadic Alzheimer’s disease a form of diabetes?

Due to the aging of the population and to unhealthy lifestyle habits, age-related metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are a growing and alarming problem around the globe.

Last comment on 23 May 2017 by Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

Happy Fathers’ Day, 2016 , World Peace, and the Need to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease

On this Fathers’ Day, June 19, 2016, I would like to share a revelation that I had in college, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the anti-war days of the late 1960s.

Early diagnosis, timely diagnosis, or personalized diagnosis in AD?

As disease-modifying drugs are crucially missing from the pipeline of treatments available for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or related disorders, physicians, scientists, and public health experts are promoting the concept of early diagnosis.

Last comment on 29 April 2016 by Philip Scheltens, Prof.dr

Can Alzheimer’s-in-a-dish models accelerate AD drug discovery?

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) transgenic mice have been used as a standard model for AD drug discovery and basic mechanistic studies. These mouse models overexpress amyloid β precursor protein (APP) or APP/presenilin (PS) with single or multiple familial AD (FAD) mutations, which lead to excess accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ), a well-known driver for AD pathogenesis.

Last comment on 8 April 2016 by Christopher Navara

Early and Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Two Different Entities?

The first case of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a 51-year-old woman, was described in 1906. For several years, AD was assumed to be a rare form of presenile dementia.

Last comment on 19 February 2016 by Gianluigi Zanusso, Medical

Extracellular Tau Spreading

The microtubule-associated protein tau is mainly expressed within neurons where it performs its physiological function of microtubule stability. However, extracellular tau is found in models of tau overexpression in which neuronal degeneration and cell death is prominent.

Last comment on 8 January 2016 by Alejandra Alonso, PhD

Time to Dismount

The field of Alzheimer research has reached an impasse after more than 100,000 clinical and scientific papers published in the last 40 years, because there is yet no hope, no effective treatment, and no knowledge of what causes this dementia.

Last comment on 24 November 2015 by Gustavo Román, MD, DrHC

Is There Alzheimer’s Disease?

Of course there is, but, as the expression goes, “It’s complicated”. Our contention is that Alzheimer’s is more of a disease of minds than a disease of brains.

Last comment on 5 February 2016 by J. Wesson Ashford, MD, PhD

Diagnosing Subjective Cognitive Impairment: A Non-Dementia Related Context

For most people, older adulthood is associated with some decline in memory and in some aspects of cognitive function. These are age-related changes [1] that are widely expected, understood, and accepted by the general public.

Last comment on 16 October 2015 by Amy Davies, MSc MSc PhD

Protecting Progress

Over the past few years there has been tremendous progress in diagnosis and therapeutic trials on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias. Overall, the cost/benefit relationship is shifting with success.

Last comment on 21 October 2016 by Allyson Rosen, PhD, ABPP-CN

Depression in Alzheimer's Disease

Depression in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a substantial impact on disability, disease progression, and caregiver burden. Furthermore, depressive symptoms in normal aging, as well as in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are associated with cognitive and functional decline.

Introducing the JAD Editors' Blog

Two hundred issues and nearly twenty years have positioned JAD at the center of printed and electronic peer-reviewed publications in Alzheimer's disease, as a venue that reflects the breadth of research in the field worldwide.

Last comment on 28 March 2017 by Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD